Rashes

Our skin is not just a blanket, or a piece of delicate leather, it is, indeed, home to the greatest number of immune cells in our body. The immune cells migrate in and out of our skin to communicate with other immune cells, and they communicate with the nerves in our skin reciprocally. Immune cells can become activated by foreign agents, such as microbes or chemicals like perfumes, medications, or cleaning agents. Immune cells are regulated and watched over by other immune cells. Besides foreign agents, abnormal immune cell interaction is another major cause of skin eruption. Some immune cells carry vesicles within them. Upon release of certain contents of the vesicles, capillaries become more dilated, which results in greater blood flow, and as a result more redness. Other components of the immune cells induce the capillaries to become more leaky, or they alter the function of the cells that make up the outer layer of the skin, the keratinocytes. Of interest, our skin and body has only a few words to express itself, i.e., different causes of rash can present very similarly. That is when the knowledge of how different rashes look under the microscope, along with gathering some history about the rash, and observing the distribution and characteristic of the rash can help a dermatologist make a diagnosis.

Types of Rashes

There are different types of rashes that can occur to people for different reasons which includes:

  • Dermatitis:It is a form of skin inflammation or swelling. It causes redness and inflammation to the skin and the red area may form tiny blisters that leak clear fluid, and then become crusty.
  • Eczema:It is a general term that describes several different conditions in which skin is inflamed, red, dry, and itchy. Eczema is a common skin condition, and atopic dermatitis (also called atopic eczema) is one of the most common forms of eczema.
  • Impetigo:It is a very contagious bacterial, streptococcal infection that has small-crusted sores.
  • Hives:Hives (also called Urticaria.) are very itcy. They are small red round disc-like areas over the body. They range in size from a dime to a saucer.
  • Psoriasis:It is hereditary and can occur at any age. It causes thick scaled-over pinkish or purplish areas on the elbows, neck, knees, scalp or back.
  • Ringworm:It is a circular rash with a raised border. It is usually just one and it is causes by a fungal infection, not by a worm. It can occur anywhere on the body and anyone can get one.
  • Rosacea:Most common in women and people with fair complexions, appears as a flushed appearance on the face, almost like acne. It is also called adult acne.
  • Seborrhea:It's a form of dermatitis. It causes reddish scaling on the head and even on the face around the eyebrows. It is usually itchy. This is cradle cap in an infant.
  • Shingles:It is very painful. It usually affects elderly or those with weakened immune systems. There is a red blistering rash in a line with intense burning and pain.
  • Chicken pox:The symptoms of chicken pox are fever, cold symptoms, fatigue and a very itchy rash that looks like a bunch of pox or spots all over the body. They turn into blisters then burst and scab. Chicken pox occurs mostly in children although adults can who never had it as children can get it.

Common Causes of Rashes

There are various reasons that can cause rashes. Things that can cause a rash include other diseases, irritating substances, allergies and your genetic makeup. Some common causes of rashes include are anxiety; allergies from foods, dyes, medicines, insect stings, metals such as zinc or nickel; Bacterial or viral infection; Skin contact with an irritant; Fungal infection; Reaction to vaccination; Exposure to sun (sunburn) or heat and Skin diseases such as eczema or acne

Some other uncommon causes also include are Autoimmune disorders such as psoriasis, Lead poisoning and Pregnancy.

Treatment of Rashes

The treatment option varies significantly depending upon the types, causes and the symptoms of the rashes. If a patient is not certain about the actual cause of the rashes, he needs to take the advice of a general practitioner. After examining the symptoms of this disease, the practitioner can provide proper medications that will help a person to recuperate from this ailment of this disease.

Generally, dermatologist or doctors identify the rashes through a visual examination. In some cases, a skin biopsy or other test (e.g., blood test, urine test) may be necessary to determine the exact nature of a rash. After accessing the appearance of a rash, accurate treatment is given.

Prevention Methods

As there are many types of rashes, some skin rashes can be prevented and some cannot be. However, you can lower the risk of developing skin rashes by several steps. These includes:

  • By avoiding allergens or irritants, you can reduce the risk of developing rashes.
  • Wash your hand frequently that can you help prevent spreading viruses that cause rashes.
  • Adhering to the recommended vaccination schedule for childhood illnesses – such as the varicella vaccine for chickenpox and MMR immunization for measles, mumps and rubella – can reduce the risk of contracting these diseases and their associated skin rashes. In some cases, however, the vaccinations can trigger reactions that result in skin rashes.

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